Wednesday, December 3, 2014

Hong Kong Student Leader Joshua Wong's Letter to His Mother 黃之鋒致母親書英文翻譯

Mum, I Owe You a Birthday Meal 
(原文在後)
November 30 (Sunday) is mum’s birthday. Before that day, I said to mum: “Mum, I’m very sorry that I won’t be able to celebrate your birthday with you. We’ll take action to escalate our movement. I’ll be up all night at Admiralty and won’t come home. Let’s have that birthday meal on December 1.” Because of my hunger strike, this birthday meal was postponed.

In fact, I have had pathetically few opportunities to come home to see my family since the Umbrella Movement began. The tents in Admiralty have become my second home, but my real home has become estranged. Whenever I come home to change clothes, parents were either asleep or at work. Even when we actually met, I was too tired to talk and fell asleep because of extreme exhaustion. So we’ve only been chatting here and there on  “whatsapp”. I miss having late supper, drinking milk tea on those nights with my family. In my blurred memories, I long for those meals with the whole family at the table.

Because of this, the only thing in my thoughts when we discussed who would go on hunger strike was mum’s birthday meal. I was worried if I lost the chance to have that meal, when would be our next time to eat at the same table again. I can count with one hand how many meals I have had since the occupation began. I’m not afraid of the sense of starvation brought by a hunger strike. I’m only worried the relationship with my family will become distant because of the hunger strike.


Nevertheless,  I still made this decision, to go on a hunger strike with Prince Wong and Isabella Lo. As Scholarism’s organizer, it’s natural for me to take the responsibility, and should not involve two female students. I need to take action, either going forward or backward, with every fellow student in our group. The more important thing is to be determined not to let the Umbrella Revolution fail.

Even if the hunger strike won’t be effective -- I know a hunger strike won’t shake the government, and it’s difficult to make them withdraw the decision by the National People’s Congress (NPC). But I’m feeling guilty for returning home empty handed from the Umbrella Movement. Not even a single outcome. This makes one feel rather powerless. But before being arrested again, I’m not planning to occupy indefinitely. When the voices for retreating are becoming louder, I can only use my body to shout at the government, calling out to my fellow warriors who once held umbrellas, facing our original goal that seems to have been forgotten. It’s not about arguing over police over, it’s not about conflicts between blue ribbons and yellow ribbons, but about political problems made by those in power behind the ribbons and batons. We should be back at the negotiation table, solving problems through politics.

A dialogue between officials and civilians over “restarting political reforms immediately” -- this is not a hefty demand. This demand has no direct connection with the decision (by the NPC) on August 31. It’s not violating the Basic Law. The Hong Kong government received the NPC decision and ignored people’s demands such as “abolishing the Selection Committee (to elect the Chief Executive)” and “nomination by citizens”. We only want the government to restart political reforms, which is within its power to process demands, making officials face issues in Hong Kong. We want the government to overturn all the past consultations, decisions and procedures and start all over again. In so doing, the Umbrella Movement can find a turning point and some hope.

Asking for dialogue is a very humble demand. The purpose of the hunger strike is to try every means to bring some outcome with all others in this movement. I only hope mother can understand my decision. Do you still remember that you didn’t criticize or question me after I called you about the hunger strike decision?  You just said plainly: “I understand. I wait for you, Joshua, to come home for my birthday meal.” After that, I was overwhelmed by a sense of guilt all of a sudden. At that moment, I said many sorries. I knew you asked me to spend less time online and more time to rest. But I still want to publicly thank you and father for your tolerance and support. There’s one sentence that I find it hard to say, thoughI’m a rational, straight forward quick mouth, I’m not used to saying such a thing. But I want to say it to mum, whose birthday was the day before yesterday, mum: I love you. 

The day when C.Y. Leung is willing to have a dialogue with students will be the day to make up for this birthday meal. I will remember what you said: rest and pray during the hunger strike. And finally, please allow me to say this: I am very grateful for and proud of my parents.

Joshua Wong

On the 23rd hour of the hunger strike

December 2, 2014

Translation by Rose Tang. 轉載英文翻譯請注明譯者為Rose Tang. Twitter推特@rosetangy Facebook 臉書: https://www.facebook.com/rose.l.tang
原文
【媽媽,我欠你的生日飯。】

11月30日(星期日)是媽媽的生日,生日前夕我跟媽媽說:「媽媽,很抱歉,未能跟你在正日慶祝生日,那天有升級行動,通宵在金鐘未能回家,生日飯留待12月1日才吃吧。」因著絕食,媽媽的這餐生日飯被迫押後。

其實雨傘運動開始至今,回家跟家人相見的機會少得可憐,金鐘的帳篷成了我的第二個家,但原來的家卻轉變得陌生,回家更換衣物之時,父母不是在熟睡,就是在辦公室上班,若能見面因著經過度疲累,三言兩語的也談不上便倒頭大睡,只能在whatsapp的片言隻語交流,我想念著晚晚跟家人吃消夜喝奶茶,也憶起模糊的片段,一家人齊齊整整在餐桌吃飯的時光。

正因如此,在會議討論絕食人選時,我唯一考慮的就是媽媽那餐生日飯,只憂心沒機會吃生日飯的話,下次在飯桌吃飯也不知是甚麼時候,坦然佔領至今跟家人吃飯的次數,一隻手也數得完,我不懼怕絕食帶來的飢餓感,只擔憂因著絕食跟家人的關系變得疏遠。

然而,我還是下了這個決定,跟黃子悅和盧妍慧參與絕食,除了因為自覺作為召集人應承擔責任,不應由得兩名女生絕食,理應跟組織的每位同學,不論職位或身份共同進退,更重要的還是抱著一份對雨傘運動的不甘心。

縱使絕食的作用不大,我也深知絕食不能撼動政權,難以撤回人大決定,但我還是不安於雨傘運動空手而回,連一個成果也取得到,實在讓人有種無力的感覺,但在未能再度被捕的時候,我不是打算無了期地佔領下去,但在清場呼聲越來越響的時候,謹能用我的身軀跟政權吶喊,呼喚著曾經撐傘的戰友,重返起面對那個不慎遺忘的初衷,不是警權爭議,不是藍黄之爭,而是在絲帶和警棍背後當權者所製造的政治問題,理應重返談判桌透過政治解決。

就著「立即重啟政改」進行官民對話,根本不是開天殺價的訴求,這項訴求八三一決定沒有直接扣連,亦不違反基本法,我們只想在港府拿「人大決定」擋下「公民提名」和「廢除功能組別」等訴求時,透過重啟政改這項港府權責範圍需要處理的訴求,促使官員正視香港問題,把一切過往的諮詢、決定和程序推倒重來,才能讓雨傘運動找到轉機和希望。

要求對話只是一項卑微的訴求,絕食只為盡一切所能在運動跟大家取回成果,只盼母親能諒解我的決定,還記得我在電話跟妳說自己要絕食以後,妳沒有甚麼批評,也沒有質疑,只是淡淡地說「明白的,我等著之鋒你回來吃我這餐生日飯」,接著心頭湧上一種內疚的感覺,當刻說了很多個對不起,明知你叫我少上網多休息,但我還是想公開感謝你和父親對我的寬容和支持,即使有一句說話是難以啟齒,口直心快和理性的我也不習慣講這類說話,但我也想跟前天生日的媽媽說:我愛妳。

梁振英願跟學生對話之日,就是補回媽媽生日飯的一天,我會謹記你的說話,在絕食期間多休息和禱告,容許我最後說一句話:我為我的父母感恩和自豪。

黄之鋒
寫於絕食第23小時

Tuesday, December 2, 2014

Declaration of a Hunger Strike 學民思潮絕食宣言

English translation of Scholarism's Declaration of a Hunger Strike  學民思潮絕食宣言英文翻譯(原文在後)


Declaration of a Hunger Strike
December 1, 2014


Even the faintest candlelight, when collected together, can light up the darkness. Even if this light is put out, or isolated, a small remaining flame that’s burning ferociously is enough to brighten people’s hearts that are smothered by the darkness, and shine light on those who suddenly awake.
During the past year, we have not stopped insisting on citizens’ nomination. As students who should be studying, we were forced to step out in this surreal time and stand in the streets to promote genuine universal suffrage. We believe the era after this surreal time is the one for genuine suffrage, and also our era.

The Hong Kong government has turned a blind eye and a deaf ear to local people’s occupation of streets for more than 60 days. We are disappointed with the government’s indifference towards the demands from a large number of Hong Kong residents for genuine universal suffrage. We are shocked at the excessive police brutality against civilians. We’re all tired, our bodies are exhausted, our hearts are weary. Facing this government that’s like a high wall, we’re fragile eggs. Facing police batons, we’re unarmed youngsters. We’re students who are still shouting and are not afraid of losing our voices.


Growing up teaches me to face reality, and to forget the beautiful future that we’re dreaming of. But I firmly believe we can rewrite everything now. We watch the values that we have been cherishing -- equality, freedom and justice -- being nibbled away and destroyed. In this twisted and estranged city, our beliefs are invincible. Facing this crumbling government, we have no other way. We can only put down our physical needs and tell the government with a hunger strike, that we want genuine universal suffrage, we want the government to withdraw the decision by the National People’s Congress (NPC).

Rita Fan, a member of the NPC Standing Committee, once said young people should find their way back after being lost and should not waste their youth. But we think we’re not frittering away youth. For Hong Kong, a place we deeply love, we’d rather gamble with our youth on the democratization of Hong Kong. We’ve never expected any status or fame. What we really want is a fair and just system. What we luckily own is this ambitious and innocent courage. Our beloved family and friends, my apologies, this crazy decision of mine makes you worry. We’re certainly afraid, but we’ve never run away. If we escape, Hong Kongers will gradually lose an important future. We love ourselves, but we love a beautiful future even more, to give to my beloved and myself. During the hunger strike, we hope everyone will try their best in their positions, in order to let the Umbrella Movement continue. The occupiers can stick with us. Legislators of all kinds can initiate battles in the Legislative Council. students can get to know our ideals and promote them. Other civilians, please describe to your close friends the real situation, apart from visiting us.

Shouldering the responsibility that history has offered us, we will not walk away. We believe this “Hong Kong solves Hong Kong’s problems”, this sentence, ultimately, means the Hong Kong government cannot offload all political responsibilities to the central government again; we urge the Hong Kong government to face people’s demands, open up dialogue with honesty, and reopen the five-part political reforms.

“Now we drink deep into the night,
Glasses clinking,
All are sounds of broken dreams.
That day,
I had to get on the road,
For a restless heart,
For a survival with dignity,
For a proof of myself.”

Dreams of the young and the wild are so pure and messy, but I’m not afraid of being laughed at for having too many dreams, I’m afraid of hearing the sounds of broken dreams when we grow up, I’m more afraid of not having dreams. Born in an era of upheavals, one has a responsibility. Today, we’d rather pay our price, take up the responsibility, for being restless, for our survival. We will never bow.

Our future, we’ll seize it back.

(Translation by Rose Tang. 轉載英文翻譯請注明譯者為Rose Tang。 Contact 聯繫:推特@rosetangy
Facebook 臉書:https://www.facebook.com/rose.l.tang
原文
絕食宣言 (學民思潮)2014年,12月1日

即便是再細微的燭火,聚集起來也一樣能照亮黑暗。就算被撲滅、被孤立,剩下在雄雄燃燒著的一枝火苗,也足以燃亮被黑暗所矇蔽的人心,照亮突然醒來的人。

這一年來,我們從未間斷地堅持公民提名,作為學生本應埋首學業,卻在荒謬的時代被迫站出來,在街頭上宣傳落實真普選。我們相信這個荒謬的時代過後是真普選的年代,也是我們的年代。

香港人六十多天的佔領只換得政府的愛理不理、充耳不聞。我們為政府對廣大香港市民的普選訴求置之不理而感到失望,為香港警察使用過份武力傷害市民而痛心。我們都累了,身心都疲乏無力,面對高牆般的政府,我們是脆弱易碎的雞蛋;面對警察揮動的警棍,我們是手無寸鐵的年輕人;面對沉默的人群,我們是不顧聲嘶力竭也在吶喊的學生。

成長教會我面對現實,忘記我們所憧憬的美好未來,但我堅信當下我們可以改寫一切。眼看香港市民向來珍而重之的價值 - 平等、自由、公義被蠶食、被摧毀。在這個像是變了樣的城市,陌生的我城下,我們信念仍然堅不可摧。面對崩壞的政權,如今我們已別無他法。我們只能放下身體上的需求,以絕食來告訴政權,我們要一個真正的普選,我們要政府撤回人大決定

全國人大常委范徐麗泰曾經說年輕人應迷途知反,不應浪費青春。但我們認為,我們不是在浪費青春,為了香港這片土地,一個我們深愛的地方,我們甘願以青春在香港的民主進程上作賭注。我們從來不渴望什麼地位,甚麼好名聲,我們真正要的是一個公平的制度。這份既狂妄又天真的勇氣,是我們慶幸擁有的。愛我們的家人,朋友抱歉了,我這個瘋狂的決定讓你擔心。我們固然害怕,但我們從不逃避。若我們逃跑,香港人最終只會一步步失去重要的未來。我們自愛,但更愛有一個美好的未來,送給我愛的人和我自己。

絕食之時,我們寄望各人也在自已的位置盡一份力,讓雨傘運動延續下去,佔領者能跟我們撐下去;各位議員能發動議會抗爭;學生能夠了解和宣傳我們的理念;其他市民在探望我們以外,也能多向自己身旁的朋友細繪真實的境況。
肩負時代賦予我們的責任,我們責無旁貸,我們相信「香港問題香港解決」這句話,歸根究底,香港政府不可以再卸下所有政治責任予中央;我們要求香港政府正視市民訴求,以誠展開對話,重啟政改五部曲。

「如今我們深夜飲酒,
杯子碰到一起,
都是夢碎的聲音。
那一天,
我不得已上路,
為不安分的心,
為自尊的生存,
為自我的證明。 」

年少輕狂的歲月裡夢想是那麼的純真雜亂,但我不怕別人笑我多夢,我怕成長後的未來聽到夢碎的聲音,更怕我沒有夢。生於亂世,有種責任。今天,我們甘願付上代價,負上這個責任,為不安份,為生存,絕不低頭。

我們的未來,我們會奪回來。

Monday, October 6, 2014

Rose Tang's Speech at a Tibet Rally Protesting Xi Jinping's India Visit


Tashi delek, thank you for inviting me to join this rally! What a great honor!

First, let me apologize to you, my Tibetan brothers and sisters. I do not represent any organizations or anyone else but myself. Here I apologize for all the atrocities that the Chinese government has committed in Tibet. I am very sorry for the genocide in Tibet for the last 55 years.

On the way here, I was feeling sad about coming to a rally in New Delhi. I’ve been haunted by the images of Jamphel Yeshi, a human torch dashing through the crowd. The flames of his life and those of all the other self immolators lit up the darkness in Tibet, China, East Turkestan and Southern Mongolia, and enlightened many people, including myself. We must not hesitate to act upon such excruciating pain. We’ve been suffering and waiting for too long. The Tibetans have been waiting for 55 years, the Chinese have been waiting for 65 years. The Chinese Communist Party must go. They have been illegally occupying Tibet and China for too long. They took over our land by force. They seized power through violence. We did not vote them in. And they’ve been brainwashing the Chinese people with lies and more lies. A young Chinese man told me: “This evil empire must split up!” Do you agree?

Tibet cannot afford another self immolation, China cannot afford another massacre, the world cannot afford more human sacrifices. Why has it been so hard to fight for truth and justice, these basic principles of the humanity? Why have lies and violence been spreading all over the world? Why so much suffering still?

The Tibetan people have been persevering an incredible resistance movement against all odds and have showed the world an example of how a smaller group of people, while severely outnumbered by a monstrous regime for decades, can fight a good fight. Tyranny can never crush people’s spirit and can never win, because truth and justice will prevail.  

Now we see people in Hong Kong rising up against this tyranny, picking up the baton, taking the lead of the pro-democracy movement. Please offer Hong Kongers your support. I moved to the city in 1997, a few months before the British government handed Hong Kong to China. Back then, there were small protests. The majority of locals were doubtful of its uncertain future but were hopeful that Beijing would keep its promise and the city’s constitutional document, the Basic Law, would protect them. Now 17 years on, they have a very rude awakening and are acting upon it. Their slogan is “抗命", in Mandarin and Cantonese, it means to "fight against the fate”. They now know they must resist and revolt. Suffering is not Tibetan people’s fate, not anyone’s fate. It’s simply pointless to hold wishful thinking that the Chinese Communist Party, a pathological liar, will suddenly have some enlightenment and keep any promises. There’s no point to wait for a butcher to reincarnate into a Buddha, because they won't!

Do not negotiate with terrorists. The Chinese Communist Party is the world’s biggest terrorist organization. In 1989, we students went on hunger strike, marched, rallied and protested, hoping to have a dialogue with the government. But they responded with a massacre.

Here I have a message to Xi Jinping: Xi Jinping, Xitler! Listen up, your so-called Chinese dream is to drag people in China back to the Cultural Revolution and it’s already happening. Arbitrary detentions, killings, torture, harassment have become daily events all over the toxic piece of land that’s called China. Xitler, you can jail us but you cannot jail all of us. You can kill us but you cannot kill all of us. You can mobilize your giant propaganda machine to brainwash us and censor the Internet, but you cannot stop the flow of information. Truth has to come out and is coming out.

More and more Chinese are waking up and fighting a fearless battle inside China. More and more Tibetans, Uighurs and Mongols are rising up against dictatorship. Enough is enough, we have suffered too much for too long. Xitler, the Chinese people gave you this nickname that suits you. You’re the most ruthless ruler since Deng Xiaoping. Listen up, Xitler! People in China are not those innocent ones back in 1989, we are rising up and saying no to you. We will not let another Tiananmen Massacre happen. Remember Hitler’s fate? You will be tried and punished for your dirty violent rule. The days of the Chinese Communist Party are nigh.

Thank you India, for giving the Tibetan people a chance to survive and thrive. Prime Minister Modi, I have a message to you, too. Other world government leaders such as British Prime Minister David Cameron have fallen to their knees one after another, kowtowing to China. And strangely, the United States, the world police, have been sheepish and blind to the atrocities that keep happening in Tibet, China, East Turkistan and Southern Mongolia. Prime Minister Modi, you know what you should do. Please show the world the conscience of India, the world’s biggest democracy. Money cannot buy love, it cannot buy or sell out democracy, either.

Obama, you’re such a wimpy kid in front of Xitler! The Chinese government is like a school bully -- if no one stops it and lets it get away with it, it will become a bigger bully. The United States, the world’s biggest bully, has no guts to call Xitler out for his dirty tricks. Appeasement from the West is cultivating and encouraging a monster. Government leaders must wake up and face up to the Chinese government. And we cannot afford to wait for those politicians to act, we must unite and fight together. United we stand, divided we fall. The Tibetans, Chinese, Uighurs and Mongols must come together -- we’re all up against the same brutal regime.

The Tibetans are being harassed everywhere in the world, here just now, in Nepal, and even in Europe, for being Tibetan. Why is this dangerous trend spreading everywhere? It’s because those government leaders are either bought out or simply let themselves be bullied by Beijing. We must continue to speak up and challenge them. It’s simply wrong to support a corrupt violent government led by the Chinese Communist Party. The CCP has been corrupting the whole world with its thuggish way of doing things. The Chinese government has not only exported its pollutants and shoddily-made goods but also immoral and harmful ways of doing things, encroaching on basic moral standards and basic principles of humanity.

Cheating, lying, violence, distrust and bribery have become the norm and the new moral standards in China. Such ugly human nature has been encouraged and has been spreading all over the world. Tibet, China, Hong Kong, East Turkestan and Southern Mongolia are in crisis and the world will be dragged into a mess. We must act upon it. And the time is now. Now it’s more urgent than ever. If we do not speak up and act upon, not only our brothers and sisters inside Tibet, China, Hong Kong, East Turkistan and Southern Mongolia will have to suffer more, but the whole world will also be dragged down into the Dark Ages.

My brothers and sisters, you don’t have to sell yourselves short. Demand what you deserve and what belongs to you. Listen to your own voice and your own heart. And I hope your representatives listen to you -- ordinary Tibetans in exile and ordinary Tibetans inside Tibet.

Tibet belongs to Tibetan people. Tibet was not part of China and should not be part of China. What would you think if Polish people asked Hitler for autonomy after Nazi troops invaded their country during the Second World War? Ask not what the Chinese government will do for Tibet, ask yourself what you can do, as an individual, for your country! And ask what your government can do for all the Tibetans.

You may think you’re powerless and nameless. Think about the Tank Man of Tiananmen, he was nameless and still is. And think about the brothers and sisters inside Tibet, especially those self immolators -- the flames of their bodies are silent screams trying to wake us up. If we nobodies work together, we can be somebody, we can bring change and make history! Mao Zedong said: “Tiny sparks of fire can scorch the plateau.” Yes! The sparks from us ordinary individuals can build sweeping wild fires to change the landscape, so His Holiness the Dalai Lama and yourselves will be able to return to your Tibetan plateau.

So let’s speak up and rise up, together! Free Tibet, Free China! Bhod gyalo!

Thuk che nang!

September 17, 2014


Majnukatilla Tibetan Refugee Settlement
New Delhi

Thursday, August 21, 2014

德国《明镜》在线报道 [就天安门屠杀的争论:德国之声跟其中国员工分手 ]

出于对一个同事的愤怒,女记者苏雨桐发了推文,因而就不再被允许为德国之声写报道了。诱因是一场关于1989年天安门屠杀的激烈辩论。

[汉堡/波恩]
8月20日:北京天安门屠杀25周年纪念日还没过多久,德国之声为此引发的争议现在又激化了。这个电台结束了与中国女记者苏雨桐的工作关系,德国之声新闻发言人约翰内斯 霍夫曼向《明镜》在线证实。此前,苏扩散了一份反对专栏作者佛兰克 泽林的公开信,因他在该电台网页上为中国政府一手制造的血案脱责。

这项事件涉及的是如何评价1989年64天安门抗议活动,就这个问题,女记者唐路首先写于她的博客;当年政府用坦克镇压了示威,至少有241人死亡。在北京居住至今20年、并且在那里经营一家媒体公司的佛兰克 泽林与在德国生活的中国人长平,就屠杀问题,在德国之声的页面上进行了书面辩论。

长平再三表达的观点是,血腥屠杀要由中国政府负全责。泽林则相反:”如果西方单方面夸大事实描述该事件,无助于任何人。“在第二篇文章中,泽林要长平”以公平取代愤怒“,并且在第三篇中指责长平”极端过度夸张"。

”我们所需的不只是异议人士的观点“

此后,苏参加到了辩论。这位在他们辩论期间自己也就天安门事件写过文章的女博主,参与了签署反对泽林观点的公开信。在这封致德国之声总监彼得林堡公开信里,其中写道:“虽然作者似乎要表达别样的观点,但是这样的论点明显地遮掩和美化了1989年的事件,对于受害者和家属表现出无情的冷酷。”

苏在自己的推特账号上推了公开信。此外,她还在推特上登出了一张合成照片:其中可以看见佛兰克泽林在一辆1989年行驶在天安门广场的坦克上。”德国之声领导层因此说我把有关泽林的信息公开了,是破坏德国之声的纪律,“苏对《明镜》在线讲。星期二,总编格尔达 摩亚向她通告了结束工作关系。

德国之声新闻发言人约翰内斯 霍夫曼对《明镜》在线表示,苏到年底的有限期的框架合同协议将不再延期,而且她从即刻开始也不再得到工作任务。她的行为“破坏了信任关系”,因为”她积极地搬弄是非,反对领导层和编辑部成员。“”没有机关能接受这个的“,霍夫曼说。

即便如此,在德国之声,言论自由仍然是有保障的 -- 这一点通过长(平)与泽林之间的辩论就可看出。”我们也需要其他观点,并不只是异议人士的“,霍夫曼继续说,只有这样才能保障报道多元化。

德国之声资金绝大部分来自德国联邦纳税人,
已不是第一次因其中国报道而引人注目。2008年,这个面向国际的电台的编辑部,就因其在中文节目里宣传明显带有符合北京当权者口味的内容而闻名。编辑部领导人张丹红因此丢掉了她的职务。

德国《明镜》报道德语原文German magazine Der Spiegel’s original article (in German) on DW sacking Su Yutong:
http://www.spiegel.de/kultur/gesellschaft/deutsche-welle-streit-um-twitter-nachricht-zu-tiananmen-massaker-a-987085.html


Wednesday, August 20, 2014

《南德意志报》:中国政权的批评者声讨德国之声

《南德意志报》 15.07.2014

一位专栏作者遭到反驳 -- 中国政权的批评者声讨德国之声

如果有一个著名异见人士排行榜的话,胡佳会在很前面。 在中国,他属于那些敢于张嘴说话的人。 2008年他得到了欧盟议会颁发的沙哈洛夫奖,坐过牢,并且现在在北京被软禁。这些不能打中他,他仍通过互联网不断地发声。 最近甚至出乎意料地用德语发声;他拿着一张写有“我们不愿忘记64!屠杀就是屠杀,不是一时失足!”的纸站在镜头前。其他一些政权批评者也效仿他。在互联网上还传播着一份签名联署,除胡佳之外,廖亦武也签名了,又一位获奖者。他在2012年获得了德国书业和平奖。

签名联署和照片源于中国异见人士处在与德国之声和其一位专栏作者的拉锯状态中。在6月4日天安门屠杀25周年纪念日时,这个电台在其网站上发表了弗兰克 泽林的一篇评论。从2014年2月开始,他给德国之声写文章。 泽林现居北京,以前曾当过“经济周刊”和”时代“周刊的驻外记者。他定期为”商报“写文章。他经常不断地以大胆的论点而凸显,如2010年,在刘晓波得到诺贝尔和平奖时,他认为这是一个错误,并且提议给那时的中国总理温家宝颁奖。

这回在纪念日时,他在给德国之声的第一稿里,把1989年对学生运动血腥的镇压写成是“一时失足”,这样的措辞虽然被责编给删除了,但异见人士中传的还是原稿。泽林在两个版本中写道:西方把“那场事件单方面夸大了”。他的时代见证人是中国的老朋友赫尔穆特 施密特(Helmut Schmidt)和前(民主)德国统一社会党大人物君特 沙博夫斯基(Günter Schabowski);与这两人,泽林都长谈过,并且之后写成了书出版。

在德国之声中文部也引发了抗议。“我对我们的人说了,你们写点什么反驳嘛。”主编亚历山大 库达雪夫(Alexander Kudascheff)说。是他聘泽林的。“我们争取到他(泽林)是为了特意要一个反方。”他能理解很多中国人的愤怒,并且也不总是跟泽林同一观点。“但是,为了激发起争论,就需要不同的立场。”

几天后发表了一篇回复。长平,一位著名的中国记者,指责泽林“对中国当代历史的无知。” 之后泽林再次发表文章反驳,长平回应,再又是泽林。这位专栏作者对提问给出的解释是:他乐见讨论:中国需要很多不同的意见观点。可是对长平的回应,他却以挺粗鲁的方式结束了: ”如果长平想要在一个大框架下洞悉的话,那么他在下一回合反击时,就要从其以往中汲取到:不仅仅是谎言,极端夸张也是站不住脚的。他如此教训批评他的人。对于泽林和德国之声而言,争论就这么结束了,但对于中国异见人士,争论还在继续。

CHRISTOPH GIESEN, KATHARINA RIEHL 
(Translated to Chinese by Rosita Hoffman 由Rosita Hoffmann翻译)
德文原文:
http://www.genios.de/presse-archiv/artikel/SZ/20140715/ein-kolumnist-bekommt-kontra/A57582617.html

Chinese Police Bark Orders to Arrest Mongol Dissidents' Dog Over "Illegal" Internet Posts中国网警威胁南蒙古异议人士欲逮捕其金毛犬

Mongol dissident Xinna and her son Uiles released on August 15 a short video of their confrontation with Chinese Internet police who accused her Internet postings of being "illegal". After failing to provide evidence, the police officer threatened to arrest their dog. But first, some background --

Xinna, wife of prominent Southern Mongolian dissident writer Hada released on her Facebook her address and two cell phone numbers as she and her son Uiles have been bombarded by harassing phone calls and texts. Xinna on August 12 posted on her Facebook a report she penned about the harassment. She wrote that the harassing phone calls flooded in since she started to discuss with other dissidents and activists about building a network of wives/relatives of political prisoners in China. Her husband Hada has been detained in a "black jail" without charges since he finished serving a 15-year sentencing in 2010. Xinna and their son Uiles were both detained and harassed over the years. They released in early July an open letter to Chinese President Xi Jinping, the U.N. and the U.S. Congress condemning the illegal detention of Hada. Xinna has been able to access the Internet and became an outspoken activist, posting daily on Facebook and Twitter by using VPN. So it's not surprising the Internet police visited her home and sent a stern warning. But the whole scene became a farce when Xinna challenged the police who later threatened to take her dog. Uiles filmed the scene with his phone.

The following is her account (translated by Rose Tang) and the 1:30 minute video of the kerfuffle with the police on August 15: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mGrgty2iHHo&feature=youtu.be

"As my phones continue to ring with harassing calls (over the last few days), today the police came to my home to threaten us! Now we’ve uploaded the video (of their visit) to the Internet...

Since August 11, harassing phone calls have been ringing. I silenced my phones and the batteries were flattened (from continuous calls)... for people who have been trying to reach me on the phone, they get the message that my phone service is suspended or there’s no such number. I’m speechless.

At 10:30 this morning, there was someone knocking on our door. A female voice spoke: “Teacher Xin, open the door...”

I opened the door, greeting me was a group of police officers (about seven or eight of them in police uniforms), one was even holding a video camera filming us. I was alerted as soon as I saw this scene and didn’t let them in. The reason why I did this was because the police broken into our home four years ago, “discovered” drugs and used it as an excuse to detain my son Uiles and a video camera provided the “evidence”...

So I said I was afraid they would set us up for “drugs in our home” and I won’t open the door. I told them they could only talk outside the door.

The leader of the group, a middle-aged man who said he’s the deputy leader of the Internet monitoring section of the Saihan District branch of the Hohhot Public Security Bureau. He only flashed his police badge once which I didn’t see clearly. By the time I asked my son to see it, he refused to show it again. I roughly saw his name has three characters that included Jun. His surname is Li.

He told me that I had been posting “illegal information” I said which piece of information broke the law? I’m online very day and posted much information, which ones? He said: you know it yourself! I replied: I really don’t know, please show me the proof! He told me he’ll go get the evidence. “I’m here warning you!” he added and left unhappily.

I opened the door to see the “guests” off, my golden retriever Banbuer enthusiastically ran after them. Surprisingly, that deputy leader screamed at his subordinates: “Take the dog!” But no one followed his order. His subordinates are all very young and look scholarly. After all, they’re just Internet police and seem gentle. They’re mostly university educated majoring in computer science. They have some basic human quality, unlike their leader, behaving like a thug, probably trained as an anti-crime police officer... they should know, our family have seen more vicious police officers than he. His threats are futile. But over all, this man was polite, there’re far more nasty police officers than he. We didn’t record all of them, for those we recorded, they seized our videos...

I couldn’t help laughing out loud when I heard that the police leader wanted to drag away my dog...such black humor! Internet police came to my home threatening us, we reasoned with them, they couldn’t argue back and attempted to take the dog. Is that my dog has gone online to post “illegal information”? Also, Internet Police aren’t supposed to be in charge of dog affairs, they’re supposed to take charge of human affairs! Golden retrievers are too sweet, they don’t even bark. She was well meant in seeing off the police but risked being taken away...our neighbors looked on and said: they would make dog dishes to accompany their drinking, dog meat to go with their alcohol...hahaha, I had goosebumps after I heard this.

I thought they left to get the evidence, I waited and waited, but they didn’t return. Looking into what’s going to happen next, would they block the Internet? Arresting us? I don’t care any more. My situation nowadays, aren’t I a prisoner outside prisons?

I suddenly thought of a fable in my elementary school textbook: A wolf from upstream of a river walks to a sheep drinking downstream says viciously: You have got the water dirty. The sheep explains: You’re upstream and I’m downstream. The wolf says: but you did get the river dirty. Then he jumps to the gentle sheep, tears it apart and eats it.

I have recorded today’s event and uploaded it online. After all, I’m like a sheep and will end up in the wolf’s mouth, so I’ll just fight gently..."

An open letter to Chinese President Xi Jinping, the U.N. Human Rights Council and the U.S. Congress, written by Xinna and Uiles on behalf of Hada:http://www.smhric.org/news_534.htm


Chinese original of Xinna’s article on the confrontation with the police on August 15:

新娜新博客 电话还在骚扰着 ,今天警察又上门恐吓 !我的录像已发到了网上......
2014年8月15日 PM 3:04
    自8月11日至今 骚扰电话一直打着 我只得放到了静音 直打到手机没了电...外面打给我电话 要么说是停机 要么就说是空号 我已无语。

    今天上午10点30分 有人敲门 并传来一位女士的声音:新老师开门....

     打开门一看 外面站着一堆警察 (大概七八个身穿警服的人)还有人拿着摄像机在拍 我一看这架势 马上警觉起来 没给开门 因为 四年前 公安就是这样突然闯入库房“ 搜查出毒品”并以此为借口 把我儿子威勒斯抓进看守所的 摄像机还以此为证据....

    我马上明说 不敢给开门 怕再栽赃陷害我们家有毒品 他们只得在门外谈事

    为首的一位中年男子 在我的追问下 说自己是呼和浩特赛罕区分局网监支队的副队长 出示证件时很闪 我的眼神又不好 叫来儿子威勒斯看时 就不给再出示了 我大概看到是三个字的名字 好像叫--军...

 他说 :我在网上发布违法信息了! 我问他哪条违法了?我每天上网 发过许多信息 到底是那条?他说: 你自己知道!我回答; 我真不知道,请出示证据!....他只得答应回去给我找证据 并说 我这是在警告你!...然后 怏怏离去

     我开门送客 我的金毛狗 班不拉也热情相送 没想到 那个支队长 冲着下属喊;"把狗拉走!“但下属都没人动做 , 我看他的下属都是小青年 个个文质彬彬 毕竟是网上警察 还算斯文 而且一般网上警察 都受过专业训练 大多是计算机系毕业的大学生基本素质还是有的 那个头头 倒像是刑警出身 一身霸气...殊不知 我们一家早已见过比他还恶的警察 恐吓根本不起作用 !平心而论 此人还算客气 比他野蛮的警察大有人在 只是 我们没能录下来而已 其实也录过 都被他们抢走了.....

 当我听警察的头儿说要拉走我的狗时 禁不住大笑出了声...多么黑色幽默啊!网监的警察 上门恐吓  与之据理力争 理屈词穷后 居然要拉走狗 
难道我的狗也上网发”违法信息“了吗?而且 网监一般是不管狗的事儿 只管人的事儿啊! 金毛这种狗太善良 对人连吠叫都不会 好心跟着主人送客 差点还被拉走 ....围观的邻居事后议论  要是拉走你家的狗  还不让他们当做下酒菜 狗肉就酒....哈哈 我听后一阵痉挛...

     我以为他们会拿来证据 等了半天也未见下文 估计下一步 没什么好果子吧...封网 ?抓人?我已不在乎了 我现在的处境 难道不也是域外囚徒吗?...

    我突然想起一个小学课本上的寓言故事;上游的狼 走到正在下游喝河水的羊面前 恶狠狠地威胁说 ;你把河水弄脏了  羊认真的分辨说 :你在上游 我在下游 我怎么能弄脏上游的水呢?狼说 就是你弄脏的...然后 扑上来 把柔弱的羔羊撕扯着吃了.....

     我已把今天发生的事情录了像 并已上传网络 反正我也像羊一样 早晚要进狼的嘴 干脆柔弱的博一下把....

Video of the kerfuffle with the police on August 15: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mGrgty2iHHo&feature=youtu.be

An open letter to Chinese President Xi Jinping, the U.N. Human Rights Council and the U.S. Congress, written by Xinna and Uiles on behalf of Hada:http://www.smhric.org/news_534.htm


新娜旧稿重发:《蒙古秘史》中“黄金家族”妇女及其社会地位分析

btan 
南蒙古頭號政治犯,異議作家哈達2010年服滿15年刑期後一直被關押在呼和浩特郊外一座黑監獄至今。他的妻子新娜及兒子威勒斯也因拒絕與當局合作而曾被拘押,指控。新娜7月初在網上公佈給習近平,美國國會,及聯合國的控告信,引起社會及國際媒體關注。蒙古雖歷來是男權社會,但婦女起了舉足輕重的作用,請看新娜這篇文章,剖析歷史上蒙古梟雄。

新娜旧稿重发:《蒙古秘史》中“黄金家族”妇女及其社会地位分析
July 15, 2014 at 7:18pm
  蒙古民族的第一步编年体历史巨著《蒙古秘史》成书迄今已有750年的历史了,这一古典名著为蒙古族历史.文学语言哲学政治思想军事,民俗等科学的研究,提供了极其珍贵的史料。多年来国内外许多学者通过对《蒙古秘史》多侧面的探讨,大大推进了么学研究的深入发展,《蒙古秘史》作为一门国际性的学科——“秘史学”,已经取得举世瞩目的成果。“1989年联合国教科文组织把《蒙古秘史》列为世界名著之一,并决定今年8月在蒙古人民共和国首都乌兰巴托召开纪念《蒙古秘史》成书750周年学术讨论会”(《内蒙古日报》1990年7月3日第一版),这也从一个侧面说明了《蒙古秘史》的学术价值及其研究状况。

  尽管《蒙古秘史》的研究已经取得多方面的硕果,但仍有许多课题有待探讨,笔者以为从妇女学角度,《蒙古秘史》艺术为研究“黄金家族”妇女提供了丰富素材,也进而为研究蒙古妇女提供了宝贵线索。(值此《蒙古秘史》成书750周年之际,笔者愿将自己的引玉之砖匆匆抛出,望各界师长不吝赐教。)
           
                                                                 一

  在《蒙古秘史》的众多人物中妇女也占有相当比例,据笔者不完全统计,书中有名有姓的妇女共35人。由于本书是一部“蒙古皇族的实录”,所以这35人中大多数是“黄金家族”妇女,在他们之中材料比较丰富的由主要集中在阿兰豁阿.诃额仑.孛儿帖.也遂这四个人身上。下面我们将以上四人的事迹分析如下:

(一)        阿兰豁阿:她是成吉思汗元祖孛儿帖赤那的第11代孙,及成吉思汗的第12代世祖朵奔蔑儿干之妻,阿兰豁阿一生共养育五子,其幼子孛端察儿是孛儿只斤化祖,亦成吉思汗的第11代世祖。在《蒙古秘史》的第一卷里,共用23节文字简述了成吉思汗的先世第1代至第12代的历史,而这其中关于阿兰豁阿的事迹就用了12节的文字记载。据《蒙古秘史》记载,阿兰豁阿年轻时是一位容貌出众的姑娘,嫁给朵奔篾儿干以后生了两个儿子,丈夫去世后挂具期间又生了三个儿子,对母亲无夫而生子一事,前两个儿子在背后议论说:“我辈慈母,无兄弟房亲等人,无夫而生三子矣,家中独有马儿里黑伯牙兀歹,此三子盖其所出耳”(《新译简注蒙古秘史》第11页)。阿兰豁阿得知儿子们的怀疑后经过深思熟虑,编造了一个“感兴生子”的神话,并进而“五箭训子”——她让“五子列坐,人各与一箭杆命折之,一箭其何有哉?折而弃焉,又束五箭杆,与而命折之,五人将束五之箭杆,人各转持,轮而折之,而未能焉”(同上书,第11页)。然后她教训五子道:“汝等五子,皆出我一腹,脱如适之五箭,各自为一,谁亦易折如一箭乎!如彼来之箭,同一友和,谁易其如汝等何!”(同上书,第11页)。折箭的说教,强调了团结一致的必要性和不团结的危险性。

 阿兰豁阿的训言,寓意深刻.教益颇深,千百年来在蒙古民族中流传甚广,阿兰豁阿这位聪慧的母亲也被“当做有政治间接地可尊敬的妇女而写入史册”(《蒙古族简史》第10页)

(二)      诃额仑:她是也速该巴特尔的正妻,成吉思汗的母亲。“也速该在蒙古部忽图剌汗死后,是该部一个有实力和威望的人物,是大多数蒙古部落的君主”(《蒙古族简史》第29页)。由于他的早逝,其妻诃额仑不得已挑起生活的重担,并锻炼成长为一个有政治头脑的杰出女性。《蒙古秘史》中关于她的记载大大超过阿兰豁阿,她可以说是书中35位女性中最为出色的一个。从时间上看,从她年轻时候被抢亲成为也速该的妻子,一直到她逝世,书中均有描述。从空间上看,她的活动大大超越了传统女性的天地,她除了养育遗孤,还积极参与现实政治,为成吉思汗统一蒙古奠定了坚实的基础。

  《蒙古秘史》告诉我们:诃额仑原是蔑儿乞部人也客赤列都的新婚妻子,娶亲归途因“颜容无比”(《新译简注蒙古秘史》第25页)而遭也速该三兄弟的追劫。大难临头她舍己救夫,当他发现来者不善时,便劝赤列都逃命并安慰道,好男儿何愁无妻可娶?你若是想念我的话,另娶一女就叫我的名字吧,并脱下长衫送给情郎留作纪念,显示出她那善良而豁达的性格。成为也速该的妻子后,她共生育了四男一女,铁木真是其   长子。当塔塔尔人用毒酒害死也速该时,铁木真才九岁,最小的女儿帖木仑“方在摇车中”(同上书,第27页)。也速该尸骨未寒,诃额仑母子便遭冷落,在一次祭祖仪式上她因迟到而遭非礼,但诃额仑并不示弱,且依理据争。后来部众因“深水已凅矣,明石已碎矣”(同上书,第34页)欲四散而去时,她又“躬身持上马而往,追还一半百姓”(同上,第34页),在部民将散,部族濒于毁灭的危急时刻,她用神圣的军旗为维系不足的生存而挺身而出,但因大势已去,部民们最终还是遗弃了她们母子迁移而去。

  身陷逆境的诃额仑一方面为了生存“紧系其固姑冠,严束其衣短带,奔波于斡难上下”(同上,第40页),四处采集草根野菜,艰辛抚育儿女;另一方面为了复兴祖业,她又对孩子们耐心启蒙,严格教育。她不断提醒儿女们“在自影外无友,屋外无缨时,泰亦赤兀惕兄弟之难尽时”(同上,第40页)要加强团结,还经常“寻旧言,引古语”(同上)鼓励儿女们继承传统成就大业。在诃额仑的精心培育下,铁木真兄弟茁壮成长兵齐心协力发展成一支新生的政治力量,崛起于“星天旋转,诸国争端”(同上书,第249页)的时代。在铁木真为统一蒙古而进行的斗争中,诃额仑继续发挥着重大作用:当札木合暗示铁木真他想与之一分为二时,她和孛儿帖建议,和札木合及早分手,避免了不必要的损失;在征战途中,她陆续收养了敌对部落的四个聪明遗孤,并按她“白日视之亡日,昏夜听之亡耳”(同上,第106页)的设计,将四人均培养上成为栋梁之才;在铁木真听信人言欲杀二弟札木合的关头,她又及时劝阻,防止了内部残杀。··· ···铁木真的政敌札木合在死前总结自己的一生得失时曾说过:“安答(指铁木真)有聪慧之母,生性俊杰,有多才弟,友为豪杰,··· ···而我自幼遗于父母,又无昆弟,妻乃长舌,友无心腹,故为天命有归之安答所败”(同上,第214页),这也从反面道出了诃额仑的丰功伟绩。

(三)       孛儿帖:她是成吉思汗的正妻,翁吉拉惕部人,徳薛婵的女儿。当她十岁的时候,也速该见她“其面有光,其目有华,··· ···而中意”(同上,第31页)为其九岁的儿子铁木真求亲,她父亲当即同意并为她做主定下婚约。也速该死后,诃额仑一家命运坎坷,家也凋零,根本无力承办像样的婚事,在此情况下孛儿帖的父母不但没有毁约,而且由她母亲出面送亲,还赔送了大批嫁妆(其中包括一件日后为铁木真崛起派了大用场的黑貂皮袄),将女儿嫁与铁木真。

 《蒙古秘史》中对孛儿帖的记述主要表现在四个方面,它既不如阿兰豁阿的事迹集中,又不及诃额仑的描述详尽,但这不多的记载又最具特色和耐人寻味,且看:——第一,铁木真崛起初期,因势单力薄遭到泰赤乌乌部人的迫害,为保存自己他寻求父亲的“安答”王罕的庇护,初次见面时,他将孛儿帖的珍贵嫁妆——一件黑貂皮袄献上,“王罕极喜”(同上,第55页)把他认为义子,正是在王罕的帮助下,铁木真才转危为安并打开了局面。孛儿帖的嫁妆伟丈夫的事业奠定了基础,这也是从侧面揭示出她宽广的政治胸怀。第二,正当铁木真积聚力量之时,“三姓蔑儿乞惕,以昔日诃额仑母于痴列都之故,今欲复其仇而来”(同上,第58页),抢走孛儿帖。铁木真向王罕、札木合求援,全力反击,不仅夺回了妻子,还获得大批财物。铁木真的初出茅庐之战壮大了力量和树立了声威。夺回孛儿帖,客观上成了他政治上崛起的契机,而孛儿帖的尊贵地位也由此可见一斑。第三,铁木真和札木合早先是好朋友,相处时间长了双方不免产生矛盾,当札木合用隐晦的语言向他表示想分手时,铁木真不解并与母亲和妻子商议,“不待诃额仑母言,勃儿帖夫人曰:闻札木合安答性好厌旧云,今其厌我之时矣,札木合安答适所语者,乃欲谋我之言也。我不可下营,就此行而善离之,兼夜行焉也可”(同上,第80-81页)。她不仅评价了札木合的为人还想出了对策。将泼辣而果断的性格反映的淋漓尽致。铁木真采纳了夫人的意见,连夜兼程离开了札木合。这也表明在政治问题上诃额仑和孛儿帖是有发言权的,而且孛儿帖的发言权更大,否则她不敢抢在婆婆之前发表言论。第四,铁木真称罕后,蒙力克父子八人仗着早年的功劳欲发展自己的势力,七子之中的萨满教领袖阔阔出更是放肆,先是在孛儿帖兄弟之间播弄是非,后来竟发展到毒打并污辱铁木真的小弟斡惕赤斤的地步。当小弟向哥哥哭诉完冤屈后,“未及成吉思合罕言,孛儿帖夫人··· ···堕泪曰:彼晃豁坛何为者耶?昨亦结党欧合撒儿矣,今又令斡惕赤斤从跪其后,成何理也耶?··· ···汝奈何坐视其害汝弟每若是耶?”(同上,第277-278页)成吉思汗听从了夫人的话后,下令杀了阔阔出,从此蒙力克父子都老实了。这里孛儿帖又是先于别人发表意见,且被丈夫接受。无怪乎有的学者指出“孛儿帖是成吉思汗智囊团里最主要的成员”(赛熙亚乐:《成吉思汗传》第464页)呢!

 综上所述,我们不难看出孛儿帖是一个有政治头脑的女性,她有很强的参政议政能力,她不仅是尊贵的第一夫人,而且还是一位女政治家。

(四)      也遂:她是成吉思汗的宠妃。她和妹妹也速干原为塔塔尔部的美女,铁木真政府塔塔尔部后姐妹俩均为其宠妃。也遂在征战中一直跟着成吉思汗,直到他病危也是她守在床前。成吉思汗死后也遂还分得大量财物,其受宠程度可见一斑。也遂不仅貌美而且胆识也胜人一筹。

  据《蒙古秘史》记载,成吉思汗建立蒙古帝国后始向外扩张,他亲自挂帅欲征服西夏,“及出征时也遂进言”,(《新译简注蒙古秘史》第304页),她请成吉思汗在走前立下遗嘱,以防他在征战中身亡无人接班。成吉思汗听后同意并采纳了她的提议,并曾赞她“妃虽妇人,也遂之言是之是也”(同上),经协商把斡歌歹选为接班人。正是在这次的西征中成吉思汗患病身亡,也正是由于也遂的及时提醒,接班人问题才得以妥善解决,也遂的政治远见令人钦佩。

  以上,我们把《蒙古秘史》中主要的妇女人物的事迹做了大概介绍,在此基础上我们有必要进一步分析她们在古代蒙古社会中作用,进而揭示其社会地位。

                                                                         二

  纵览《蒙古秘史》中“黄金家族”妇女,不难看出她们在当时的蒙古社会发挥了积极的作用,并主要表现在以下几个方面:

第一.     她们有教育子女的义务。众所周知,母亲的重要作用首先来源于母子之间不可分割的血缘关系,孩子生命的萌芽借助于母体,而孩子与社会建立的第一个关系便是母子关系,母亲对后代的身心发展有着义不容辞的责任,因此人们常说:母亲是人生的第一为老师。在发达的社会里,孩子对母亲的依赖随着家庭劳动社会化的加强而呈弱势,但在落后的时代里,特别是古代的蒙古社会中,妇女和儿童歌关系是密切的,而且二者的相处时间更长,其中的道理是显而易见的。

  在古代蒙古社会,脆弱的游牧经济是唯一的生产和生活方式,一个做父亲的总要出去照顾家畜,狩猎或做比较远程的旅行,在家里的时间比较少,所以儿童的早期教育,多半是由做母亲的来承担。母亲们在日常生活中培养孩子的各种能力,在白天劳作的闲时和草原漫漫的黑夜里,她们用美丽的神话和古老的故事向孩子们进行着知识启蒙和人格教育。特别是在还没有形成文字的古代蒙古社会中,,这样孩子们从出生到十多岁的大部分时间里主要是依靠母亲的教诲了。在此情况下,一个好母亲就等于一个好老师,母亲的素质高低直接影响着孩子们的身心发展。

  在《蒙古秘史》中阿兰豁阿那著名的“五箭训子”就是对她的孩子们所进行的品德教育,成吉思汗的母亲诃额仑更是一位了不起的教育家,她不仅把自己的几个孩子教育的出类拔萃,而且还将收养的四个孤儿也培养成才,如:失吉忽秃忽后来成了大法官,孛罗忽罗日后成为成吉思汗的“思杰”之一。《蒙古秘史》的作者对阿兰豁阿和诃额仑的赞扬在很大程度上是对她们教子有方的肯定,它同时肯定了母亲对孩子的教育有义不容辞的责任。

  第二.她们有广泛活动的场所。千百年来妇女们所以没有获得社会应有的尊重,主要还是因为她们长久的陷落在家庭生活之中,大多数被隔绝在社会生产和生活之外,夫权控制社会使妇女的权力基本丧失,女性的活动天地也格外狭小。但是《蒙古秘史》一书却反映了一个非常奇特的现象:即“黄金家族”妇女的活动范围广泛。

 除了在教育领域她们富有全权使命外,在其他重要的社会活动中,也时常见到她们的身影。例一,也速该死后不久,在一次祭祀仪式上俺巴孩(生前是蒙古部落首领)的两个后妃斡儿伯和莎合台因诃额仑的迟到而拒绝分给她极品,诃额仑抗争后,俩人又下令遗弃她们母子于旧营盘,果真第二天,部众离开了诃额仑母子而迁移它处。这表明:部落首领的遗孀有着至高无上的权力,否则她们是不能在如此重要的场合发号施令的,更不可能在祭祖仪式上唱起主角。例二,铁木真崛起不久,势力坚强,前来投靠的人马络绎不绝。又一次“成嗯思合罕以此百姓来自札木合处来,喜百姓来服”(同上,第98页),与盟友主儿乞部人“筵与斡难之林中”(同上),宴会上双方的女性诃额仑、额别该、豁里真、忽兀儿臣等均是上宾,且诃额仑、撒察别乞一起收到最高礼待——给首批斟酒。给第二批斟酒人中“撒察别乞小田额别该”也在其中,豁里真和忽兀儿臣合敦因没有受到和额别该一样的鲤鱼而当场责打司厨。由此看来,贵族妇女在重大的社交场合和男性一样有地位。上述二合敦子所以敢责打司厨也说明她们以往没有受过怠慢。

 例三,早期的军事斗争因其方式的残酷很少有女性介入,但《蒙古秘史》却告诉我们:蒙古妇女在军事斗争中也扮演了重要角色。其一:乃蛮部首领太阳罕软弱无能,其母古儿别别速手握实权“治道锐利”(同上,第174页),且有军事才干。(有的学者因她曾下令割下克烈部首领王罕的手机祭祀而指责她“专权擅政,胡作非为,结果亡国被褥”,其实恰恰是太阳罕有亡国之罪。)如果在纳忽山战役之前太阳罕采纳古儿速的意见不和铁木真交战,乃蛮部也不至于全军覆没。很显然,古儿别速不仅参与军政大事而且有军事才干。其二:“秃马惕百姓之官歹都忽勒莎豁儿死,其妻孛脱灰塔儿浑领秃马惕百姓”(同上,第167页)。后来此部被铁木真征服,女首领也被俘,这说明孛脱灰塔儿浑不仅是部落的政治领袖,而且还亲自征战参与军事活动。其三:成吉思汗西征时,妃子忽兰、也遂均随军,特别是也遂不仅在出征西夏前提醒成吉思汗立下遗嘱以防不测,而且在攻西夏途中成吉思汗兵种之时他主持公务。成吉思汗逝世后“分给也遂众多的西夏百姓”这一事实本身实际上在肯定她在西征中的功绩。

 综上所述,在古代的教育、外交、政治、军事等重大领域,“黄金家族”妇女均有涉足,这与农业社会里妇女们“大门不出,二门不迈”被“金屋藏娇形成了鲜明对照。这也许是由于游牧的生产和生活方式,没必要也不可能把妇女的活动严格加以限制志缘故,这样他们自然有何男性一样露面的机会了。
第二.       他们有参与政治的资格。(这个问题实际是上一个问题的继续,因为这个问题是妇女社会地位的主要标志,故有必要专门强调)政治一向是指就社会公共事务做出决断的权力领域,所以政治家担负着比一般人更重大的社会责任,社会也要求政治家具备高于常人的素质。如此苛刻的条件,使得一向被看做是弱者的女性作为群体,有史以来几乎被排斥于社会权力领域以外。但《蒙古秘史》却向我们展现了另一幅图景——“黄金家族”妇女在政治领域相当活跃。请看——

  铁木真与札木合的分裂是出于诃额仑和孛儿帖的主张;成吉思汗除掉萨满教领袖阔阔出是采纳了孛儿帖的建议;西征前提醒成吉思汗指定子嗣的又是宠妃也遂;各部落首领去世后大多由遗孀掌握实权。··· ···这一切均表明:“黄金家族”妇女在社会上有很大的发言权,相似政治上也有相当的影响,同时她们的政治素质并不低,对蒙古社会的政治生活产生过积极的影响。

第三.       她们有积蓄私产的权利。我们知道,在原始社会由于生产力水平低下,不存在剩余产品,财产的私有更不可能。进入阶级社会以后,财产的多寡与一个人的社会地位是相一致的,有社会地位的人才有可能活的财产,其社会地位愈高,他的财产也就愈多。按照这个逻辑,既然“黄金家族”妇女有较高的社会地位,那么她们也应该有客观的财产或相应的财产继承权和分货战利品的权利才对,《蒙古秘史》一书的记载恰恰证明了这个推理。

例一.       成吉思汗即位后,建立了较完备的政治体制——千户制。他将全蒙古部众划分为95个千户,分配给开过有功的臣僚88人,而“黄金家族”则是蒙古的最高统治集团。为此他又把编成户的蒙古人众连同管辖千户的各级“那颜”当做他的家产而分配给母亲诃额仑和小弟弟斡惕赤斤一万百姓时,“母嫌少而未语”(同上,第273页)。例二。成吉思汗在征服西夏途中病亡逝世后,分给也遂众多的西夏百姓。这些均清楚地表明:她们有财产继承权和分货战利品的权利,否则诃额仑是不会嫌少和不敢嫌少的。

  总而言之,上述事实充分说明了“黄金家族”妇女在当时的蒙古社会力有着相当高的社会地位。原因何在?前人早已作答。——恩格斯曾明确指出:“只要妇女仍然被排挤于社会的生产劳动之外,而只限于从事家庭的私人劳动,那么妇女的解放,妇女同男子的平等,现在和将来都是不可能的”。的确,人们在社会上和家庭中的地位,归根到底是由人们在社会生产中的地位决定的,相对于蒙古社会而言,恰恰是游牧生产和生活方式最终决定了蒙古妇女的社会地位。
                                                                 三

  傅立叶有句名言:“某一个时代的发展总是可以由妇女走向自由的程度来确定,因为在女人和男人、女性和男性的关系中,最想名不过的表现出人性对兽性的胜利。女性解放的程度是衡量普遍解放的天然标准。”(《马克思恩科斯选集》第二卷,第250页)。妇女在创造人类文明,推动社会发展中具有伟大的作用,而人类也可以在妇女的进化中看到自己精神上的成熟。如果我们把“黄金家族”妇女研究作为一个线索,在此基础上进一步分析各个时代的蒙古妇女,这对我们全面把握蒙古族的历史发展轨迹(毕竟妇女占人口的一半!),在更高层次上解释蒙古民族的文虎特征等定会有启迪。

  笔者以为分析“黄金家族”妇女,可以为深入研究蒙古学提供一个新视角:它对我们全面把握古代蒙古社会状况、科学分析古代蒙古社会的性质、揭示蒙古民族的社会和文化特色、以及解剖蒙古社会的婚姻与家庭等等,都有着积极而全新的意义和作用。本文只限于对《蒙古秘史》一书中国“黄金家族”妇女的分析,即成吉思汗时代的妇女人物分析,而他以后的帝国时代和北元时代等“黄金家族”妇女,如:托雷的寡妻夏沙儿合黑、塔泯、斡歌歹的夫人脱烈格涅、忽必烈夫人察必、满都海斯琴夫人等还没有涉及,更没有把视野投向广大的蒙古族劳动妇女。至于对“黄金家族”妇女与广大蒙古妇女的关系,各个时代蒙古妇女的状况及差异,古代妇女与进的现代妇女的继承关系,妇女与社会的关系等问题均有待进一步研究探讨。笔者将于日后尽力深入钻研,更希望有更多的人来共同研究,以推进蒙古学的发展。(1990年8月定稿)
                       
重发旧稿的几点说明:

   1,本文最早被内蒙古妇干校公开出版的论文集《探索集》收入,又在内蒙古社科院的公开期刊《内蒙古社会科学》的经济 社会版作了删节后发表,本文为删节版。多年后 再看此文 已有不少过气之处 但为了保持历史的真实 在此处登出时 未作改动。

   2,本文写作的背景:八十年代中国的思想和学术界非常活跃 内蒙古的学术界也一样,我当时在一所中专当政治老师 教马克思主义哲学 教课之余 我还参与蒙古族哲学及政治思想史研究 (我的学术引路人恰是傅莹女士的父亲阿民先生),当时 由于我写了一篇涉及敏感人物的论文(评述内蒙古现代史上的风云人物德王的政治思想)被内蒙古宣传部的官员公开点名批评 而引人关注 但更多的人开始欣赏我的文才 纷纷约稿....内蒙古妇干校想要出一本反映本校教职工学术水平的论文集 校长娜仁女士懂蒙古史 希望有人写写历史上的女性 但本校教职工中大多缺乏这方面知识  便找到了我 盛情难却 利用暑假完成了此文 也算是填补了当时内蒙古妇女学研究的一个空白(娜仁女士的激励语)吧...

   3,为何重发旧稿?主要有三层意思 以解众人的心结 :a,在蒙古族的历史上 蒙古妇女曾发挥过重大作用 后人不应遗忘!b,我在丈夫哈达入狱后的所作所为 不过是发扬传统而已!c,现代蒙古族女性也应该继承先辈的优良 与时俱进 不负使命!

    4,当年我写此文时才30出头 是个心怀激情的年轻学人  现在我已近60岁了 多年政治漩涡的裹挟  我的学术梦已破灭  现在我成了良心犯的妻子及“非法经营”的“罪犯”  晚年 能否重拾旧梦?由不得我自己 关键还在于时局...

Tuesday, August 19, 2014

German Public Broadcaster Sacks Top Chinese Reporter Over Her Tweets Protesting Tiananmen Massacre Whitewashing


German public broadcaster Deutsche Welle (DW) today (August 19) sacked prominent Chinese journalist Su Yutong in relation to her Tweeting and signing a petition in protest against the whitewashing of the Tiananmen Massacre by a German columnist who runs a Bejing-based media company with partnerships with Chinese state media and DW.
德国之声今天(8月19日)突然辞退中文组著名记者苏雨桐,8月18日“六四”学运领袖吾尔开希访问德国之声,今天德国之声总监和总编亲自宣布,让苏雨桐立即离职。事件疑与泽林在德国之声发布为六四辩护的失实文章一事有关。 事情非常严重,请媒体朋友关注。(中文报道及背景资料在英文报道后)
Su Yutong, who worked for DW's Chinese-language section for four years, said: “Frank Sieren (DW columnist) published articles in DW defending Chinese government's role in Tiananmen Massacre. I signed a petition opposing Sieren's views. Managers at DW said I have violated DW's internal regulations by spreading the news about Sieren.

DW Director General Peter Limbourg , Editor-in-chief Alexander Kudascheff and Director of Programming Gerda Meuer were very annoyed. Today Kudascheff and Meuer notified me directly about my immediate sacking. The heads of the Asia Section and the Chinese section were not notified by them and were shocked at my news.”

Su today released on her Facebook and Tweeter a copy of DW's Chinese-language coverage performance chart of February. She said Meuer, when sacking Su, stressed that Su did not fit into the "new direction" that DW's Chinese-language section needs. "Please look at my direction -- stories I've written count for half of the Chinese-language reporting done by more than 20 reporters. The most important factor is that I covered stories that aren't liked by the Chinese Communist Party!" Most of Su's reporting is about human rights in China and exposé on the Party leadership.

The timing of Su’s sacking is peculiar -- it followed yesterday’s visit to DW from former Tiananmen leader Wu’er Kaixi who issued a statement earlier protesting against Sieren’s whitewashing of the massacre. He’s among a number of prominent Tiananmen leaders who sent DW protest statements, such as Wang Dan, and high profile writers and activists including Bao Pu (publisher and son of Bao Tong, former advisor to Zhao Ziyang, the late General Secretary of the Chinese Communist Party who was ousted by Deng Xiaoping days before the massacre and was under house arrest until his death in 2005 ), German-based writers Liao Yiwu and Liao Tianqi who drafted a petition (in a link below) in protest against Sieren. The petition has been widely circulated which Su has also signed.

In July, Feng Haiyin, head of the Chinese language section of DW, was demoted. DW management explained the reason was because Feng's "principles" did not comply with those of the Director of Programming. But Feng's demotion was related to Sieren’s column, according to Su. In early June, DW management pressured its columnist Chang Ping not to publish articles about Sieren and not to name Sieren, according to Su. On June 11, an altered German copy of Chang’s piece was published briefly before it was deleted. But Sieren soon published a piece defending himself.

Sieren was hired by DW in February to write a column five times a week to be published on DW’s website in German and Chinese. Sieren and his girlfriend have been running a media company in Beijing that has partnerships with Chinese state media and DW. His company websites: http://www.sinocom.tv/pages/team.php?lang=DE
http://www.cmmintelligence.com/

Su said DW's Director General Peter Limbourg earlier this year told staff that he visited Chinese Ambassador Shi Mingde in Berlin before Limbourg took office. Limbourg demanded the staff at DW’s Chinese-language section promote the Chinese government, not just criticizing it. Before taking the DW top job, Limbourg attended several China-Germany Media Forums, sponsored and organized by Global Times (top Chinese propaganda machine).
Here's Chinese media (in English) coverage of Limbourg’s China visits. http://english.sina.com/china/2010/0520/320676.html
Chinese language coverage: http://baike.baidu.com/view/9909662.htm

Su said: “Frank Sieren has won so much support from the DW management and published numerous articles with false facts, attacking people who are critical of the Chinese government. As a journalist who knows China well and familiar with and in support of Chinese human rights, I protest that Sieren’s views being promoted on the platform of DW. I protest that the DW Director General and Editor-in-chief continuously support Sieren. With their support, Sieren even published a piece smearing artist Ai Weiwei, using the language of Global Times. In his recent column, Sieren ridiculed Ai, saying Ai was going after the market and fame.”
Sieren’s piece: http://www.dw.de/weltsprache-kunst/a-17717226

DW columnist Chang Ping (English translation) detailing the Sieren incident:
Tiananmen Massacre not a “Passing Lapse” of the Chinese Government, July 8, 2014
http://chinachange.org/2014/07/08/tiananmen-massacre-not-a-passing-lapse-of-the-chinese-government/
Without the Right to Remember There Can Be No Freedom to Forget, August 23, 2014

http://chinachange.org/2014/08/23/without-the-right-to-remember-there-can-be-no-freedom-to-forget/
How Brainwashing Works in China, August 30, 2014
http://chinachange.org/2014/08/30/how-brainwashing-works-in-china/
Lies Not a Part of Diversity of Views, August 30, 2014
http://chinachange.org/2014/08/30/lies-not-a-part-of-diversity-of-views/

From New York-based activist Wen Yunchao 温云超: 8月18日“六四”学运领袖吾尔开希访问德国之声,今天德国之声总监和总编亲自宣布,让记者苏雨桐立即离职。事件疑与泽林在德国之声发布为六四辩护的失实文章一事有关。 事情非常严重,请媒体朋友关注。
Su Yutong mobile 苏雨桐电话:+49 17620290753
Su Yutong’s email 电邮: suyutong0623@gmail.com
Wu’er Kaixi’s mobile 吾尔开希电话: +886 920926055 , +1 6464506055
DW Director General Peter Limbourg台长,先生,peter.limbourg@dw.de
DW Director of Program Gerda Meuer 总监   女士 gerda.meuer@dw.de
DW Editor-in-chief Alexander Kudascheff 总编  先生  Alexander.Kudascheff@dw.de

德国之声记者苏雨桐叙述"泽林事件"如下:
泽林是在今年的2月1日起,为德国之声工作,每周发来五篇德语文章,经中文部编辑翻译后,以中德文发表;六月四日当天,Frank Sieren以德文和中文在德国之声发表文章.

Frank Sieren获得台领导的大力支持,不断发表违背事实的攻击性文章,指向对象都是中共想要打击的人。作为一位对中国很了解并支持中国人权活动的记者,我无法接受Frank Sieren文章中,长期以来的政治倾向和在德国之声这个平台上传递的价值观,所以提出抗议。同时也对德国之声总监和总编面对这个问题,继续支持泽林表示遗憾和抗议。也正因为有他们的支持,才会有泽林继续用《环球时报》手法,抹黑艾未未的文章出现,在泽林最新的文章中,对这位艺术家的独立批判精神以“阴谋论”的方式进行了嘲讽,指向他的政治异议行为是为了获得更大的市场和名声:http://www.dw.de/weltsprache-kunst/a-17717226

德国之声总监勒令我立即停职时强调:德国之声中文部要有一个新的方向,你与这个新的方向不符;请大家关注我的方向,这是一张二月份德国之声中文报道排名,我一个人占据全部(二十名左右记者)的二分之一,最重要的是我的为中共不喜欢的内容!

七月德国之声中文部主任冯海音受泽林事件影响,被降职到另一部门。

     
       1,Frank Sieren’s article (Chinese 泽林关于六四屠杀的文 (中文):
http://www.dw.de/%E4%BB%8E%E5%A4%A9%E5%AE%89%E9%97%A8%E5%88%B0%E8%8E%B1%E6%AF%94%E9%94%A1/a-17683958

        2,泽林的文章发表后,引起了很大的争议,最先向德国之声发来抗议信的是北京知名异议人士鲍彤之子鲍朴,他也是六四的亲历者,目前是香港新世纪出版社的负责人,他的抗议信见附件二照片

        3,On June 6, German-based writers Liao Yiwu and Liao Tianqi drafted a petition  in protest against Sieren. 6月6日,旅德作家廖亦武、独立中文笔会前会长廖天琪发起联署抗议信: https://docs.google.com/forms/d/1n_ww2fy8R57NdOwRmduTBVDMjulV5sglSigarOI-uDM/viewform
Signers and comments 签名人和留言:
https://docs.google.com/spreadsheet/ccc?key=0AsKDF8_HXe4IdHNqUXZBQzVDenRDMUozcGxQemZveEE&usp=sharing

      4,记者长平的反驳文章在6月8日发出,但受到德国之声电台总监和总编的阻拦,要求他尽量不提或少提泽林的名字,甚至要求长平在泽林看过之后才能发表,6月11日,这个反驳文章的德文版被编辑的篡改后发表,长平要求撤下,后来在总监与总编与德国之声见面会后,得以发表:http://www.dw.de/%E5%85%AD%E5%9B%9B%E5%B1%A0%E6%9D%80%E4%B8%8D%E6%98%AF%E4%B8%AD%E5%85%B1%E4%B8%80%E6%97%B6%E5%A4%B1%E8%B6%B3/a-17711914
     
      5,Frank Sieren针对长平文章又发表一篇德文文章,奇怪的是,长平的文章只在德国之声版面上停留了很短的时间,泽林竟然有备而来,于6月12日发表了这篇文章:    http://www.dw.de/fairness-statt-wut/a-17702613
     
      6,泽林在6月21日发表的对长平进行个人攻击的文章,德国之声对泽林的个人情绪化表达大开绿灯:
http://www.dw.de/%E6%9E%81%E7%AB%AF%E5%A4%B8%E5%BC%A0/a-17726707    

       7,Frank Sieren获得台领导的大力支持,不断发表违背事实的攻击性文章,指向对象都是中共想要打击的人。作为一位对中国很了解并支持中国人权活动的记者,我无法接受Frank Sieren文章中,长期以来的政治倾向和在德国之声这个平台上传递的价值观,所以提出抗议。同时也对德国之声总监和总编面对这个问题,继续支持泽林表示遗憾和抗议。也正因为有他们的支持,才会有泽林继续用《环球时报》手法,抹黑艾未未的文章出现,在泽林最新的文章中,对这位艺术家的独立批判精神以“阴谋论”的方式进行了嘲讽,指向他的政治异议行为是为了获得更大的市场和名声:http://www.dw.de/weltsprache-kunst/a-17717226

      8,直到今天,泽林在德国之声稳稳占据平台,继续发表讴歌中共的文章,文章有很多事实和逻辑的错误,写作手法和环球时报相类似,如这篇文章:http://www.dw.de/%E4%B8%AD%E5%9B%BD%E6%8B%AF%E6%95%91%E8%8B%B1%E5%9B%BD%E5%A5%B3%E7%8E%8B/a-17733738
     
       与事件相关一些信息:

       9,关于德国之声新任台长Peter Limbourg ,在去年上任之初来到德国之声中文部时,亲口告诉部门员工他在上任之前拜访了中国驻德国大使史明德,他还要求中文部员工不能只批评中国政府,也要鼓励他们……Peter Limbourg 在就任德国之声台长之前,曾多次参加中国官媒环球时报主办和资助的中德媒体论坛:
http://english.sina.com/china/2010/0520/320676.html
 http://baike.baidu.com/view/9909662.htm
      他就任后,也在今年4月以德国之声台长身份参加该活动,与中共官媒互动频繁,是否违反德国之声法?

      10,Frank Sieren本人,和他的女友在中国开设的公司: http://www.cmmintelligence.com/contact ;(战略合作伙伴包括德国之声)
http://www.sinocom.tv/pages/team.php?lang=DE(曾和德国之声合作项目)
   
      11, 德国之声雇佣与自己有商业合作的人做驻北京站记者是否违反德国之声法?

      12, 6月16日,德国之声总监和总编与中文部员工见面时,反复强调德国之声中文部不能办成异议之声,对我来说这些指令明显违反德国之声法(http://www.dw.de/grundlage-f%C3%BCr-unabh%C3%A4ngigen-journalismus/a-3004485)其中:“在那些本国媒体不自由和不能全面报道的国家里,为使人们有畅通的获取信息的通道,外国媒体是重要的补充”,会议结束后,总监要求与会者保密,我拒绝了,因为泽林事件是一个公共事件。
       13,觉得还有一件事情值得关注:近期在新浪微博上,出现一条据称是从中国使馆流出的消息:德国之声近期将调张丹红回到中文部,2008年的张丹红事件曾引发世界范围内对德国之声的争议和关注,如果未来德国之声真的公布此项任命决定,我更感兴趣的是,为何中国使馆会先于我们内部员工知道此事?张丹红对泽林也一直是极力推崇.

        就此事件,我(苏雨桐)想强调的是:

       1,泽林现在是德国之声的北京记者,德国之声关于中国的重大议题和公共事件,只有他一个人可以用评论的方式发表观点(其他记者只能做报道,不能发表评论),德国之声中文部主任冯海因也有这样的权利,但他写得很少,这就形成了一种局面:事实上,只有泽林一种声音;

        2,泽林的发表的书、文章的观点,大多是用环球时报的手法,讴歌中国政府的成绩,鲜少直接触及实质问题;他本人、他的女友在北京的公司都和中国官方媒体有很多合作,这样的背景成为德国之声中文部唯一就中国评论的声音,和德国之声法的宗旨相抵触

        3,泽林美化六四屠杀的文章,不是单一事件,从某种意义上,代表德国之声对中国报道的方向,泽林在发表了美化六四屠杀的文章后,由于他的观点得到了电台负责人的支持,他在以后又发表了攻击艾未未的文章,和继续讴歌中国政府的文章,德国之声为何不能聆听一些听众的意见?聆听一些编辑的意见?

       4,德国之声中文部和德语组,作为节目部门,为何不能决定稿件是否可以使用,德国之声台长、总监和总编以行政命令的方式指令节目部门必须刊登泽林的稿件,我必须说这点是错误的。
Yutong Su

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